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Year-Number: 2021-Cilt 6 Sayı 26
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Number of pages: 983-991
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Ocak 2020'de Dünya Sağlık Örgütü tarafından "halk sağlığı acil durumu" olarak ilan edilen Covid-19 pandemisi, dünyanın birçok yerinde sokağa çıkma yasağına yol açtı. Sosyal etkileşimler, yemek yapma becerisi ve yeme alışkanlıkları gibi bazı günlük alışkanlıklarda değişiklikler meydana geldi. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye'de bir grup internet kullanıcısının rahat gıda (comfort food) tüketimine Covid-19 kaynaklı karantina uygulamalarının etkilerini anket yöntemiyle değerlendirmeyi amaçladık. Anket ve Duygusal Yeme Ölçeği katılımcı olan 602 kişi tarafından yanıtlandı. Rahat yiyecek tüketimi ve cinsiyet, yaş farklılıkları, duygusal durum ve VKİ gibi farklı faktörler yerel yeme kültürüne göre antropolojik olarak değerlendirildi. Sonuç olarak, insanların pandeminin zorlu koşullarıyla baş edebilmek için yöresel mutfağın yüksek kalorili rahat yemeklerini (comfort foods) tükettiklerini ancak tercihlerinin cinsiyet, yaş ve duygusal duruma göre değiştiğini ve bu rahat yemek tüketiminin genel olarak kilo artışına neden olduğunu tespit ettik.



Declared as a "public health emergency" by the World Health Organization in January 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic led to lockdowns in many parts of the world. Changes occurred in some daily habits like social interactions, the ability to cook, and eating habits. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of Covid-19 induced confinement policies on comfort food consumption of a group of internet users in Turkey using a questionnaire. This questionnaire and Emotional Eater Questionnaire (EEQ) were answered by 602 participants. Comfort food consumption and different factors like gender, age differences, emotional status, and BMI were assessed anthropologically according to the local eating culture. As a result, we found that people consumed high-calorie comfort foods of local cuisine to cope with the difficult conditions of the pandemics, but the preferences changed according to gender, age, and emotional status, and this comfort food consumption generally caused weight gain.


  • Arrival Date : 22.05.2021

  • Published Date : 28.07.2021

  • Year 2021, Vol:6, Issue:26, pp:983-991 E-ISSN: 2636-7637

  • 984 Year 2021, Vol:6, Issue:26 (JULY)

  • their home, family, and/or friends (Spence, 2017).

  • 2003). According to the results of another study made in France, men's comfort food consumption was

  • increasing positive emotions (Dubé et al., 2005)

  • In Scarmozzino and Visioli’s study (2020), during the pandemic in Italy, an increase in “comfort food”

  • Besides these, ready-made meals were reduced by nearly 50% (Scarmozzino & Visioli , 2020). In a study

  • decreased nutritional quality (Marty et al., 2021). In a study made with adolescents in Poland, it was

  • (Spinelli et al., 2020). Another food type was sweets. In a study made with Japanese older than 18, younger

  • respondents from the other groups (Katou et al., 2005). A study by Wansink et al. (2003) on “chocolate

  • 2017). According to Fiorillo and Gorwood (2020), Covid-19 is a new form of stressor that will lead to

  • Gorwood, 2020). These expected mental consequences of the pandemic especially rising depressive

  • symptoms has concurrent elements with the emotional eating mechanism. Van Strien et al. (2007) describe

  • emotional eating as a tendency to overeat when negative emotions are present Close (2013) lists those

  • are driven by how they had just felt while deciding what to eat (Christensen & Brooks, 2006).

  • Arroyo et al., 2020) because the isolation process has effects on both energy intake and energy expenditure

  • (Bhutani & Cooper, 2020). For example, food scarcity concerns may drive people to buy packaged, long

  • 2007). As a result, consuming excessive amounts of these foods with high energy density is easily associated

  • with weight gain (Bhutani & Cooper, 2020). In a study investigating the effect of quarantine on behaviors

  • 985 Year 2021, Vol:6, Issue:26 (JULY)

  • to stress, and decreased physical activity were identified as risk factors in weight gain (Zachary et al., 2020).

  • activity (Scarmozzino & Visioli, 2020). In a study conducted with obese children and adolescents in Italy, it

  • of junk food (Pietrobelli et al., 2020).

  • stress, people tend to overeat, especially "comfort food" (Muscogiuri et al., 2020). Comfort foods that are

  • positive effect on mood (Renzo et al., 2020). Carbohydrate craving encourages serotonin production that in

  • 19 (Muscogiuri et al., 2020). With the increase in the duration of staying at home, making bread, pizza, and

  • 2020). These factors are associated with overeating and excessive energy intake and may increase the risk of

  • developing obesity in the future (Bracale & Vaccaro, 2020)(Renzo et al., 2020).

  • was used. Arslantas (2019) did EEQ’s reliability and validity studies of the Turkish version, and it was

  • translated to Turkish. The cut point of EEQ was taken as 20 point out of 30 as Arslantaş (2019) advised for

  • the Turkish population (Arslantaş et al., 2019).

  • September 2020. All participants were volunteer internet users. An informed consent form was given to the

  • in the survey. In this study, there were 90 baby boomers (1964–1945), 151 from the X generation (1965–

  • 1979), 329 from the Y generation (1980–2000), and 31 from the Z generation (2000 - …). 1 participant at the

  • from our previously published study (Durukan & Gül, 2019). The raw data in connection with the paper for

  • which offer psychological and emotional comfort (Troisi et al., 2015). Weight gain is associated with

  • increased consumption of comfort foods (Shen et al., 2020).

  • and Raw vegetables/salad. Şimşek and Yalım Kaya (2018) examined comfort food consumption by gender

  • consumed as comfort food (Şimşek & Yalım Kaya, 2018). Wansink et al. (2003) also examined comfort food

  • (2014) determined that men prefer foods such as pizza, fast food, quiche, and women prefer sweet snacks. In

  • a study by Heiman and Lowengart (2014), women’s food choices were compared to men’s and it was found

  • historically linked to status and power (Adams, 2000). Our results seem consistent with the studies in the

  • comfort food (Şimşek & Yalım Kaya, 2018). It can be said that sweet food consumption decreases with age

  • features of generation Z who are born after 2000. They grow with very different technological possibilities

  • Acton, 2001). By threatening physical health, safety, and security, the pandemic may have triggered

  • Generation Y have high adaptability and are open to change and new approaches (Durukan & Gül, 2019).

  • meals. In a study by Wagner (2014), it was stated that chocolate (26%), ice cream (18%), cookies

  • chocolate is the most preferred food in case of stress (Şimşek & Yalım Kaya, 2018). It was reported in a

  • have also been associated with weight gain (Scarmozzino & Visioli, 2020). In a study by Camilleri and

  • pastries, chocolate, ice cream/ candy and breakfast cereals. (G. M. Camilleri et al., 2014). These studies are

  • consumption in the pandemic period (Scarmozzino & Visioli, 2020).

  • For this study, 3.8% of the participants were emotional eaters. Arslantaş et al (2019) indicated that

  • emotional eating scores. These results support Timmerman and Acton’s (2001) findings which state when

  • al. (2005) state when people feel negative emotions, they tend to consume comfort food more. It is also

  • time of eating (Finch & Tomiyama, 2015). In a study, which aimed to examine the relationship between

  • 2020). Taking the mental consequences of Covid-19 pandemic and mechanism of emotional eating into

  • comfort eating can function as coping mechanism to regulate consistent negative feelings. Evers et al. (2010)

  • have helped them to move towards negative feelings to positive feelings (Wansink et al., 2003). From a

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