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Abstract


BURNING BEANS AND SOYBEAN STEMS IN THE SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST OF KAZAKHSTAN

In Kazakhstan, about 15 diseases of soybeans are recorded, the most harmful is the burn of beans and stems of soy. For the first time the disease was imported into the Republic of Kazakhstan from the Netherlands by seeds of the Tazhin variety. The first disease was discovered in 1993 in the PC "Air-Shir" Talgar district of Almaty region. Currently, the burn of beans and soybean stems is noted in all areas of the Almaty region, where yields of commercial varieties (Zvrika, Zhalpak-Say) are reduced by 40-50%. The causative agent of soybean stalk burn is the imperfect fungus Phomopsis sojae Lehm. Of the order of Sphaeropsidales. The prevalence and severity of the disease is established. It occurs in all soybean farms in the southeast of Kazakhstan. The soybean disease develops most strongly in the case of heavy rainfall, growing in the foothill areas of the Almaty and Zhambyl regions. The prevalence of burns of beans and stems of soybean was from 7.7% to 17%. The most harmful is the defeat of the beans. With an early lesion, they fall off, and with a later defeat of the beans, the seeds shrivel and crack. Usually affected plants do not form beans. With a strong lesion, the seed germination rate decreases to 25%. Symptoms of soybean plant damage are given. The first signs of the disease are manifested in the formation of one or two cotyledonous leaves of small reddish-brown spots. Extending farther along the stem, the fungus rings it, causing wilting, drying out and death of the affected plants, and also the fungus causes seed rot, damage to cotyledons, petioles, stems. At the affected plants the core of the stem darkens, they can prematurely ripen. The biological features of the causative agent of burns of beans and stems are studied. The causative agent of soybean disease can affect sixteen species of leguminous plants, as well as potatoes, Tefrasta, the carrot, onions, peppers, tomatoes, etc. The disease develops most when rain falls, growing in the foothill areas of Almaty and Zhambyl. The causative agent of the infection is usually localized at the bottom of the stem in the first eight internodes. In pure culture, the fungus retains its viability for up to a year and a half in the refrigerator. The fungus will be preserved as a mycelium on plant remains or seeds for up to two years or more. The infection spreads with the seed material, is carried by the wind, drops of water, insects.



Keywords
Soybeans, burns of beans and stems, pathogen



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